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Why Go Beyond Mutational Analysis With microRNA?

microRNA Provides Deep Insight Into Gene Expression1

Thyroid neoplasia is expressed through both mutational and cellular-level control factors.2

  • Mutations and fusions can change protein structure and function, impacting cellular growth and behavior3
  • microRNAs help regulate cellular growth and behavior by controlling protein synthesis and other regulatory functions, such as mRNA methylation1,4,5

microRNAs are master regulators of cellular activity—they control the types and amounts of proteins made by cells.6

Dysregulation of microRNAs is Common Across Cancer Types1

*Listings of microRNA markers may not be fully inclusive.

Dysregulated microRNAs have been shown to affect characteristics of cancer, such as9:

  • Cell proliferation
  • Growth suppression
  • Cell death
  • Cellular invasion and metastasis
  • Angiogenesis

The microRNAs assessed by ThyraMIRv2 are associated with cancer development and progression10-12

microRNA (miR)Function
miR-31Overexpressed in thyroid carcinoma
miR-146Influences cell proliferation, migration, and invasion
miR-222Tumorigenesis of PTC
miR-375Plays an essential role in MTC tumorigenesis and progression
miR-551Highly expressed in PTC
miR-21Influences recurrence and metastases in PTC
miR-29Downregulated in fibrotic diseases
miR-138Associated with onset and aggressiveness of PTC
miR-139Participates in important cancer-related signaling pathways
miR-155Associated with aggressive tumor behavior
miR-204Distinguishes cancers from normal thyroid tissue

microRNAs have been shown to influence thyroid-cancer-related signaling pathways—such as the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways and RET gene10

Combined Analysis and Reporting of Mutational and microRNA Markers Provides Exceptional Utility2,13,14,15

98%

Sensitivity2*

98%

Specificity2*

99%

NPV2*

94%

PPV2,16*†

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Patient management decisions are based on the independent medical judgment of the physician and molecular test results should be taken into consideration in conjunction with all relevant imaging, clinical findings, patient and family history, as well as patient preference.

*3-Category performance aligned to clinical decision-making in atypia of undetermined significance (Bethesda III) and follicular neoplasm (Bethesda IV) nodules. NPV and PPV are calculated from moderate and positive thresholds, respectively.2,13,14,16,17

The Finkelstein, et al. study was designed to provide a deeper analysis of microRNA expression, and therefore evaluated all study samples. When aligned to commercial specimen handling and reporting, the NPV and PPV are 99% and 94%, respectively (atypia of undetermined significance [Bethesda III] and follicular neoplasm [Bethesda IV] nodules).2,16,17

FPO References: 1. Paranjape T, et al. Gut. 2009;58(11):1546-1554. 2. Finkelstein SD, et al. Thyroid. 2022;32(11):1362-1371. 3. The genetics of cancer. National Cancer Institute. Accessed September 26, 2023. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/genetics/. 4. What is the “central dogma”? Your Genome. July 21, 2021. Accessed September 26, 2023. https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-the-central-dogma/. 5. Chen T, et al. Cell Stem Cell. 2015;16(3):289-301, 338. 6. O’Brien J, et al. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018;9:402. 7. Galvão-Lima LJ, et al. Biomed Eng Online. 2021;20(1):21. 8. Celano M, et al. Int J Genomics. 2017;2017:6496570. 9. Peng Y, et al. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2016;1:15004. 10. Ghafouri-Fard S, et al. Noncoding RNA Res. 2020;5(3):88-98. 11. Bonneau E, et al. EJIFCC. 2019;30(2):114-127. 12. Wylie D, et al. J Pathol Clin Res. 2016;2(2):93-103. 13. Lupo MA, et al. Diagn Cytopathol. 2020;48(12):1254-1264. 14. Banizs AB, et al. Diagn Cytopathol. 2019;47(4):268-274. 15. Sistrunk JW, et al. J Am Soc Cytopathol. 2020;9(4):232-241. 16. Data on File. Interpace Diagnostics. 17. Ali SZ, et al. Thyroid. 2023;33(9):1039-1044. doi:10.1089/thy.2023.0141.