MicroRNA Profiling Discriminates Nodular Hyperplasia versus Follicular Adenoma

A variety of benign entities produce thyroid nodular disease, the two most common being nodular hyperplasia (NH) and follicular adenoma (FA).

NH is non-neoplastic, not requiring surgical excision unless symptomatic.

FA, considered neoplastic, can justify local resection when viewed as a precursor for progression to cancer.

Current molecular testing based solely on mutational analysis or RNA classifier does not differentiate between these or other benign states limiting surgery decision-making.

We show that microRNA (miRNA) profiling can discriminate NH from FA with high accuracy for more informed molecular assessment of cytology indeterminate nodular disease.